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The Origins and Development of Neobehaviorism: Tolman and Bandura PDF



- What are the main features and assumptions of neobehaviorism? - What are the main contributions and criticisms of neobehaviorism? H2: Edward Tolman: The Cognitive Behaviorist - Who was Edward Tolman and what was his background? - What were the main concepts and experiments of Tolman's theory of purposive behaviorism? - How did Tolman influence the development of cognitive psychology and learning theory? H2: Albert Bandura: The Social Learning Theorist - Who was Albert Bandura and what was his background? - What were the main concepts and experiments of Bandura's theory of social learning and self-efficacy? - How did Bandura influence the development of social psychology and personality theory? H2: Neobehaviorism Today: Applications and Implications - How is neobehaviorism relevant to contemporary psychology and society? - What are some of the current research topics and issues related to neobehaviorism? - What are some of the challenges and limitations of neobehaviorism? H2: Conclusion - Summarize the main points and findings of the article. - Provide some suggestions for further reading and research on neobehaviorism. - End with a call to action or a question for the reader. Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Neobehaviorism: An Overview




If you are interested in learning more about the history and development of psychology, you may have come across the term neobehaviorism. But what exactly does it mean and how does it relate to behaviorism?




Neobehaviorism Tolman And Bandura Pdf Download



In this article, we will explore the origins, features, contributions, and criticisms of neobehaviorism, as well as its impact on modern psychology. We will also focus on two influential neobehaviorists: Edward Tolman and Albert Bandura, who introduced cognitive and social elements to behaviorist theory. Finally, we will discuss some of the current applications and implications of neobehaviorism in today's world.


So, let's get started by defining what neobehaviorism is and how it differs from behaviorism.


What is neobehaviorism and how does it differ from behaviorism?




Neobehaviorism is a branch of psychology that emerged in the 1930s as a response to the limitations and criticisms of behaviorism. Behaviorism was a dominant school of thought in psychology that focused on observable behaviors as the main subject of study. Behaviorists believed that all behaviors are learned through stimulus-response associations and reinforcement, and that internal mental processes are irrelevant or inaccessible to scientific inquiry.


However, some psychologists felt that behaviorism was too narrow and simplistic to account for the complexity and diversity of human behavior. They argued that behavior is not only influenced by external factors, but also by internal factors such as cognition, motivation, emotion, personality, and social context. They also challenged the assumption that behavior can be explained by simple laws and formulas, and proposed that behavior is purposive, goal-directed, adaptive, and creative.


These psychologists are known as neobehaviorists, because they retained some of the basic principles and methods of behaviorism, but also expanded and modified them to incorporate new concepts and perspectives. Some of the most prominent neobehaviorists were Edward Tolman, Clark Hull, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter, John Dollard, Neal Miller, among others.


What are the main features and assumptions of neobehaviorism?




Neobehaviorism can be characterized by four main features:



  • Operationism: Neobehaviorists adopted an operationist approach to psychology, which means that they defined psychological concepts in terms of observable and measurable operations or procedures. For example, instead of using vague terms like "intelligence" or "personality", they used specific terms like "IQ score" or "personality test". This way, they aimed to make psychology more objective, precise, and scientific.



  • Intervening variables: Neobehaviorists introduced the concept of intervening variables to explain the relationship between stimuli and responses. Intervening variables are hypothetical constructs that represent the internal processes that mediate between the environmental input and the behavioral output. For example, Tolman proposed that cognitive maps are intervening variables that guide the behavior of rats in mazes. Intervening variables are not directly observable, but they can be inferred from the observable data and tested by experiments.



  • Systematic experimentation: Neobehaviorists continued to use experimental methods to study behavior, but they also improved and refined them to make them more systematic, rigorous, and controlled. They used sophisticated techniques such as factorial designs, statistical analysis, mathematical modeling, and computer simulation to test their hypotheses and theories. They also used a variety of subjects and settings, such as animals, humans, laboratories, and natural environments.



  • Cumulative knowledge: Neobehaviorists believed that psychology should be a cumulative science that builds on the previous findings and theories of other psychologists. They tried to integrate and synthesize the existing knowledge and evidence from different fields and disciplines, such as physiology, biology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. They also tried to develop general and comprehensive theories that could explain and predict a wide range of behaviors.



What are the main contributions and criticisms of neobehaviorism?




Neobehaviorism has made significant contributions to the advancement of psychology as a science and a profession. Some of these contributions are:



  • Theoretical development: Neobehaviorism has produced some of the most influential and enduring theories in psychology, such as Tolman's purposive behaviorism, Hull's drive theory, Skinner's operant conditioning, Bandura's social learning theory, Rotter's locus of control, Dollard and Miller's conflict theory, among others. These theories have provided valuable insights into various aspects of human behavior, such as learning, motivation, personality, social interaction, aggression, etc.



  • Empirical research: Neobehaviorism has generated a vast amount of empirical research that has tested and supported its theories and hypotheses. Neobehaviorists have conducted thousands of experiments that have demonstrated the effects of various factors on behavior, such as reinforcement, punishment, extinction, shaping, modeling, self-efficacy, etc. These experiments have also revealed some of the underlying mechanisms and processes that mediate behavior, such as cognitive maps, latent learning, observational learning, vicarious reinforcement, etc.



  • Practical applications: Neobehaviorism has led to the development of many practical applications that have benefited individuals and society. Some of these applications are behavior therapy, behavior modification, behavior analysis, applied behavior analysis, token economy, biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral therapy, social skills training, self-management training, etc. These applications have helped people overcome various problems and challenges related to mental health, education, healthcare, workplace, criminal justice, etc.



However, neobehaviorism has also faced some criticisms and limitations. Some of these criticisms are:



  • Reductionism: Some critics have argued that neobehaviorism is too reductionist and mechanistic in its approach to human behavior. They claim that neobehaviorism reduces behavior to simple stimulus-response associations or mathematical equations, and ignores the richness and uniqueness of human experience and agency. They also claim that neobehaviorism neglects the role of biological and genetic factors in influencing behavior.



  • Determinism: Some critics have argued that neobehaviorism is too deterministic and pessimistic in its view of human behavior. They claim that neobehaviorism implies that human behavior is controlled by external forces or internal drives, and denies the existence or importance of free will and choice. They also claim that neobehaviorism overlooks the role of values and ethics in guiding behavior.



Cultural bias: Some critics have argued that neobehaviorism is too culturally biased and ethnocentric in its assumptions and methods. They claim that neobehaviorism is based on the values and norms of Western and individualistic cultures, and fails to account for the diversity and complexity of human behavior across different cultures and contexts. They also claim that neobehaviorism relies too much on animal studies and laboratory experiments, and neglects the ecological validity and generalizability Edward Tolman: The Cognitive Behaviorist




One of the most influential neobehaviorists was Edward Tolman, who is considered to be the founder of cognitive behaviorism. Tolman was born in 1886 in Massachusetts and studied at MIT and Harvard. He became interested in psychology after reading William James and John Dewey, and later joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, where he spent most of his career.


Tolman was dissatisfied with the traditional behaviorist approach that focused on observable behaviors and ignored the mental processes that underlie them. He argued that behavior is not a mere reflex or a passive response to stimuli, but a purposive and goal-directed activity that is influenced by cognition. He proposed that organisms learn not only by trial and error or reinforcement, but also by forming mental representations of their environment and using them to guide their actions.


What were the main concepts and experiments of Tolman's theory of purposive behaviorism?




Tolman's theory of purposive behaviorism was based on three main concepts: cognitive maps, latent learning, and intervening variables.



  • Cognitive maps: Tolman introduced the concept of cognitive maps to describe the mental representations that organisms form of their spatial environment. He argued that cognitive maps are not exact copies of reality, but rather subjective and selective constructions that depend on the organism's goals and experiences. He also argued that cognitive maps enable organisms to plan and execute complex behaviors that are not directly observable or measurable.



  • Latent learning: Tolman introduced the concept of latent learning to describe the learning that occurs without any apparent reinforcement or reward. He argued that latent learning is evidence of cognitive processes that are not reflected in behavior until there is a need or an incentive to use them. He also argued that latent learning demonstrates that learning is not a simple function of stimulus-response associations, but rather a function of the meaning and significance that organisms attach to stimuli.



  • Intervening variables: Tolman introduced the concept of intervening variables to explain how cognitive maps and latent learning affect behavior. He defined intervening variables as hypothetical constructs that represent the internal states or processes that mediate between stimuli and responses. He argued that intervening variables are not directly observable, but they can be inferred from the observable data and tested by experiments. He also argued that intervening variables are more useful and parsimonious than descriptive terms or hypothetical entities.



Tolman tested his theory of purposive behaviorism by conducting several experiments with rats in mazes. One of his most famous experiments was the "Tolman and Honzik (1930) experiment", which involved three groups of rats that were placed in a complex maze for several days. The first group received food at the end of the maze every day (rewarded group), the second group received food only on the tenth day (delayed-reward group), and the third group received no food at all (control group). Tolman measured the number of errors that each group made in finding their way to the end of the maze.


How did Tolman influence the development of cognitive psychology and learning theory?




Tolman's theory of purposive behaviorism had a significant impact on the development of cognitive psychology and learning theory. Some of the ways that Tolman influenced these fields are:



  • Cognitive psychology: Tolman was one of the first psychologists to challenge the behaviorist view that mental processes are irrelevant or inaccessible to scientific inquiry. He showed that cognition plays a crucial role in learning and behavior, and that it can be studied empirically and experimentally. He also introduced some of the key concepts and methods that are still used in cognitive psychology today, such as cognitive maps, latent learning, intervening variables, and operationism.



  • Learning theory: Tolman was one of the first psychologists to propose a theory of learning that was not based on reinforcement or reward. He showed that learning can occur without any apparent motivation or feedback, and that it depends on the meaning and significance that organisms attach to stimuli. He also introduced some of the key concepts and methods that are still used in learning theory today, such as goal-directed behavior, expectancy-value theory, cognitive dissonance theory, and social cognitive theory.



Albert Bandura: The Social Learning Theorist




Another influential neobehaviorist was Albert Bandura, who is considered to be the founder of social learning theory. Bandura was born in 1925 in Alberta, Canada and studied at the University of British Columbia and the University of Iowa. He became interested in psychology after reading Freud and Skinner, and later joined the faculty of Stanford University, where he spent most of his career.


Bandura was dissatisfied with the traditional behaviorist approach that focused on individual behaviors and ignored the social context that shapes them. He argued that behavior is not only influenced by environmental factors, but also by social factors such as observation, imitation, modeling, and self-regulation. He proposed that organisms learn not only by direct experience or reinforcement, but also by vicarious experience or observation of others.


What were the main concepts and experiments of Bandura's theory of social learning and self-efficacy?




Bandura's theory of social learning and self-efficacy was based on four main concepts: observational learning, vicarious reinforcement, self-efficacy, and reciprocal determinism.



  • Observational learning: Bandura introduced the concept of observational learning to describe the learning that occurs through watching and imitating others. He argued that observational learning is a powerful and efficient way of acquiring new behaviors, skills, attitudes, and values. He also argued that observational learning involves four processes: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.



and emotional arousal.


  • Self-efficacy: Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy to describe the belief that one has in one's ability to perform a specific task or achieve a specific goal. He argued that self-efficacy influences whether an individual will initiate, persist, and succeed in a behavior. He also argued that self-efficacy depends on four sources: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological feedback.



  • Reciprocal determinism: Bandura introduced the concept of reciprocal determinism to describe the mutual and dynamic interaction between the individual, the behavior, and the environment. He argued that reciprocal determinism explains how behavior is influenced by both internal and external factors, and how behavior in turn influences those factors. He also argued that reciprocal determinism implies that individuals are not passive recipients of environmental influences, but active agents of their own behavior and destiny.



Bandura tested his theory of social learning and self-efficacy by conducting several experiments with children and adults. One of his most famous experiments was the "Bobo doll experiment (1961)", which involved three groups of children who were exposed to different models of aggression. The first group observed an adult model who acted aggressively towards a Bobo doll (a large inflatable clown) by hitting, kicking, and throwing it (aggressive model). The second group observed an adult model who acted non-aggressively towards the Bobo doll by playing with other toys (non-aggressive model). The third group did not observe any model (control group). Bandura measured the amount and type of aggression that each group displayed towards the Bobo doll after the observation.


The results showed that the children who observed the aggressive model imitated more aggressive behaviors than the children who observed the non-aggressive model or no model. The results also showed that the children who observed the aggressive model were more likely to imitate the same specific acts of aggression that they saw, such as using a hammer or a gun. Bandura interpreted this result as evidence of observational learning, which means that children learn aggressive behaviors through watching and imitating others.


How did Bandura influence the development of social psychology and personality theory?




Bandura's theory of social learning and self-efficacy had a significant impact on the development of social psychology and personality theory. Some of the ways that Bandura influenced these fields are:



  • Social psychology: Bandura was one of the first psychologists to emphasize the role of social factors in shaping human behavior. He showed that social influences are not only external and coercive, but also internal and cognitive. He also introduced some of the key concepts and methods that are still used in social psychology today, such as observational learning, vicarious reinforcement, self-efficacy, reciprocal determinism, and social cognitive theory.



self-esteem, and self-evaluation.


Neobehaviorism Today: Applications and Implications




Neobehaviorism is not a unified or coherent school of thought, but rather a diverse and evolving movement that has influenced and been influenced by many other fields and disciplines. Neobehaviorism is still relevant and useful to contemporary psychology and society, as it provides a scientific and practical framework for understanding and changing human behavior. Some of the current applications and implications of neobehaviorism are:


How is neobehaviorism relevant to contemporary psychology and society?




Neobehaviorism is relevant to contemporary psychology and society in many ways, such as:



  • Clinical psychology: Neobehaviorism has contributed to the development of effective and evidence-based interventions for various psychological disorders and problems, such as anxiety, depression, phobias, addiction, eating disorders, etc. Some of these interventions are cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, etc.



Educational psychology: Neobehaviorism has contributed to t


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